ẒADDIK (Heb. צַדִּיק; lit. "righteous man"), the title applied to an individual who is considered righteous in his relations with God and man. Noah is described as "righteous and wholehearted" (Gen. 6:9), and the Bible is replete with praises of the ẓaddik. Acting justly is the ẓaddik's greatest joy (Prov. 21:15), and the righteous man is considered an abomination to the wicked (Prov. 29:27). The righteous live by their faith (Hab. 2:4), and when their number increases the people rejoice (Prov. 29:2). There are whole generations that are righteous (Ps. 14:5), and in the future the entire Jewish people will be righteous and thereby merit inheriting the land forever (Isa. 60:21). The ẓaddik will be rewarded with material prosperity, and his merit will endure forever (Ps. 112:3; Prov. 11:31). Even if he stumbles seven times, he will still rise up again (Prov. 24:16), and God will not suffer the righteous to famish (Prov. 10:3) or be forsaken (Ps. 37:25). Nevertheless, the Bible also recognizes that there are ẓaddikim who undergo tribulations. Abraham pleaded against the possibility that the righteous would perish along with the wicked (Gen. 18:23), and Habakkuk described the wicked swallowing up the righteous (Hab. 1:13). Ecclesiastes also probed this dilemma, remarking that "there is a righteous man that perisheth in his righteousness, and there is a wicked man that prolongeth his life in his evil-doing" (Eccles. 7:15). The rabbis described the righteous as individuals whose behavior went beyond merely fulfilling the letter of the law (BM 83a and Rashi ad. loc.), and as being scrupulous in monetary matters (Sot. 12a). One passage, however, suggests that the ẓaddik is on a lower level than he "that serveth God" (Mal. 3:18, and see Ḥag. 9b). According to one interpretation, Noah is only considered a ẓaddik because his moral standards were higher than those of his depraved generation (Gen. 6:9; Sanh. 108a; i.e., it was a relative and not an absolute standard). The rabbis praised the righteousness of the ẓaddikim as being greater than that of the ministering angels (Sanh. 93a), and held that if the ẓaddikim desired, they were capable of creative acts similar to those of God (Sanh. 65b). It was believed that the ẓaddik could annul the decrees of God (MK 16b), and that he is constantly remembered for a blessing by virtue of his good deeds (Prov. 10:7; Yoma 38b). The rabbis attributed the barrenness of the matriarchs to God's desire to hear the prayers of the righteous before he would bless them with children (Yev. 64a). It is because of the merit of the ẓaddikim that the world exists (Yoma 38b), and God will never destroy the world as long as there are 50 righteous people alive (PdRE, 25; cf. Gen. 18:26). People are divided into three classes: the completely righteous, the completely wicked, and the intermediate class (RH 16b; cf. Ber. 61b); although the verse "For there is not a righteous man upon the earth, that doeth good, and sinneth not" (Eccles. 7:20) implies that the concept of the completely righteous is purely theoretical. The completely righteous are immediately inscribed in the Book of Life on Rosh Ha-Shanah and they are similarly forthwith inscribed for everlasting life on the Day of Judgment (RH 16b). For the concept of the ẓaddik in Ḥasidism, see Ḥasidism\>\> . For the concept of the thirty-six ẓaddikim who inhabit the world in every generation, see Lamed Vav Ẓaddikim\>\> . (Aaron Rothkoff)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Игры ⚽ Нужно решить контрольную?

Look at other dictionaries:

  • ẒADDIK, JOSEPH BEN JACOB IBN — (d. 1149), philosopher and poet. Little is known of his life. From 1138 ibn Ẓaddik held the position of dayyan in Cordoba. He exchanged verses with   judah halevi and was in contact with moses ibn ezra , his contemporaries, and wrote liturgical… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • JOSEPH BEN ẒADDIK — (late 15th century), rabbinic scholar and chronicler of Arévalo (central Spain). From 1467 to 1487 he was engaged in writing a compendium on ritual law, which he entitled Zekher Ẓaddik. The final chapter comprises a chronicle of significant… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ALḤADIB (al-Aḥdab), ISAAC BEN SOLOMON BEN ẒADDIK — (mid 14th century–after 1429), Hebrew poet and astronomer. Of Spanish origin (very likely from Castile), after the events of 1391, Alḥadib went to Sicily in 1396. He lived first in Syracuse and then (1426) in Palermo. He applied his scientific… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • AddikTV — Création 21 octobre 2004 Propriétaire Groupe TVA (Quebecor Media) Slogan « Pure fiction » Langue Françai …   Wikipédia en Français

  • ḤASIDISM — ḤASIDISM, a popular religious movement giving rise to a pattern of communal life and leadership as well as a particular social outlook which emerged in Judaism and Jewry in the second half of the 18th century. Ecstasy, mass enthusiasm, close knit …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • RIGHTEOUSNESS — RIGHTEOUSNESS, the fulfillment of all legal and moral obligations. Righteousness is not an abstract notion but rather consists in doing what is just and right in all relationships; …keep justice and do righteousness at all times (Ps. 106:3; cf.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ELIMELECH OF LYZHANSK — (1717–1787), popular ẓaddik of the third generation of Ḥasidim and one of the founders of Ḥasidism in Galicia. Elimelech was a disciple of dov baer the Maggid of Mezhirech and is considered the theoretician and creator of practical ẓaddikism.… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • JACOB ISAAC HA-ḤOZEH MI-LUBLIN — (1745–1815), ḥasidic ẓaddik known by the epithet Ha Ḥozeh mi Lublin ( the Seer of Lublin ). Jacob Isaac was born in Lukow, the son of Abraham Eliezer ha Levi, the rabbi of Jozefow, a descendent of Isaiah ben abraham ha levi horowitz (Ha Shelah).… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • JACOB JOSEPH BEN ẒEVI HA-KOHEN KATZ OF POLONNOYE — JACOB JOSEPH BEN ẒEVI HA KOHEN KATZ OF PO LONNOYE (D.C. 1782), rabbi and preacher; the first theoretician of Ḥasidism. Jacob Joseph, whose birthplace is unknown, became rabbi of Shargorod, the second largest community of Podolia. In 1741 he came… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • ISRAEL BEN ELIEZER BA'AL SHEM TOV — (known by the initials of Ba al Shem Tov as Besht; c. 1700–1760), charismatic founder and first leader of Ḥasidism in Eastern Europe. (See Chart: Ba al Shem Tov Family). Through oral traditions handed down by his pupils (jacob joseph of Polonnoye …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”